The next logical step after simple bouncing ball example is something which uses a real, full-featured physics engine. Box2D is usually the popular choice. Combining Box2D with Qt has been done by many people, recently demonstrated before by Andreas and Thorbjørn. I decided to pick something else, i.e. Chipmunk physics engine.
Because this is supposed to an example, I tried to make it as simple as possible (you'd be able to extend it, once you grab the basics). Basically we have a box full of colorful marbles (yes, I loved to play marbles when I was a kid, there was not any PlayStation back then). A mouse click, or a screen tap, will generated a new marble with a random color. If you run the example on Nokia N900, you can control how the marbles move and hit each other by tilting and shaking the phone.
For a sneak peek, just watch this video (or enjoy on YouTube).
There is still a sequel to this marble box. And still with Chipmunk.